“Human behaviour flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, and knowledge.” – Plato

When we were small, we were taught how to behave in front of other people. We also observed others how they reacted to certain things or situations and adapted them. And over time with experience, we learned different reactions to these situations. Human Behaviour is a certain reaction towards a change in situation, emotion which can differ from person to person and along the course of life. These depend on the person’s thoughts, maturity, experience, and feelings. A person who is composed will control his behaviour while being angry. However, on the contrary, another person might act without thinking. Someone when young might react to a situation differently than the same person when older. 

After studying the behaviour and responses to different stimuli, scientists divided human behaviour into the following categories:

  1. Molecular and Moral Behaviour: Molecular behaviour is when the person acts unexpectedly without thinking. Moral behaviour is when a person takes action after thinking.
  2. Overt and Covert Behaviour: Overt behaviour is the one which is visible to others while Covert behaviour is not visible e.g. – thinking.
  3. Voluntary and Involuntary: Voluntary behaviour can be controlled by the human whereas Involuntary behaviour is natural and happens without thinking.

As Aristotle said, “All human actions have one or more of these seven causes: chance, nature, compulsions, habit, reason, passion, desire.” Humans have 6 basic types of emotions namely Happiness, Sadness, Fear, Disgust, Anger, Surprise. Emotions play a major role in how a person behaves.

  1. Happiness: The feeling of satisfaction and joy is generally paired with happiness. This is characterized by either a smile or laughter. The person becomes calm and his/her tone is soothing to others. It depends on the person what things make him happy.
  2. Sadness: The person is not interested in his work, can be depressed about something. This is often displayed by crying, low energy, isolating from others, the tone is not very delightful.
  3. Fear: Heart rate increases, the mind becomes more alert and sometimes sweating can also be experienced. The mind often tends to avoid or escape from such scenarios but some manage to stay calm and find a solution. This depends on the thinking and experience of the person.
  4. Disgust: Person usually turns his face away and sometimes result in vomiting. Changes in facial expressions are evident commonly.
  5. Anger: This is a result of frustration. Generally, one loses his control over mind and acts without thinking. The tone, when speaking to someone, can be harsh and loud. Change in facial expressions such as frowning or looking at someone fiercely. Some people have a better grip in situations like these as they keep their cool. They think positively with their minds to get out of the situation.
  6. Surprise: When you get into an unexpected situation, you feel a sense of shock. The expressions evolve into widened eyes, open mouth and raised eyebrows. The physical demonstration can be jumping and screaming.

When we face these emotions, the pattern learned from childhood and experience comes into play. The brain secretes hormones which changes the mental state and the person acts accordingly. Most people have the same behaviour but others have their pattern. There are also other factors which shape our mentality of behaviour. These are Genetics, Social Norms, Creativity, Religion, Attitude and Weather and Climate. A person need not follow what he has been taught or observed but might feel differently and can convert his behaviour. The question is, can animals with different intelligence also behave differently to the same situation? Ponder upon it.